Project Motivation & Objectives
The new report is a collection of expert contributions from all around the world. It was launched under the PROKLIMA project, which has provided technical and financial support for developing countries subject to the Montreal and Kyoto Protocol since 1996. With more than 30 articles from government, industry and academia, the final report summarizes the most important aspects of concern to developing countries. Two criteria that could drive the use of natural refrigerants were analysed:
- Economic benefits: As natural refrigerants are seen by many as the only viable long-term replacement for both ozone-depleting and high global warming gases, their early use could avoid lengthy transition periods and leapfrog HFCs in developing countries. Moreover, the GTZ report estimates that emerging economies can minimize foreign currency expenditures on chemical imports, eliminate supply dependencies associated with these imports, and instead concentrate resources on a long-term use of natural refrigerants. This, in turn, would strengthen the national capacity to produce domestic installations and secure jobs.
- Environmental benefits: Helping countries to improve their carbon footprint by reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from chemical refrigerants’ production, is the second rationale for the use of natural refrigerants. The report thus gives advice on how developing countries can concentrate their R&D efforts on energy efficiency potentials offered by CO2 (R744) and other natural gases.
More than half of all articles on applications working with natural fluids are dedicated to CO2 only or at least mention it. Already in its introduction to policy initiatives worldwide, the PROKLIMA publication highlights the German carmakers’ decision for CO2 in future car air conditioning and the announcement of major food retailers to use only R744 as major drivers to influence the worldwide uptake of CO2 Technology.
Furthermore, the contributions and case studies focusing on the natural refrigerant CO2, include:
- Refrigeration systems for warm climates using only CO2 as a working fluid Sergio Girotto, Enex S.r.l., Italy / Silivia Minetto, Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy)
- The first CO2 supermarket plant in New Zealand (Alexander Cohr Pachai, Johnson Controls, Denmark)
- Overview and outlook for the application of CO2 in heat pumps (René Rieberer, Graz University of Technology, Austria / Jørn Stene and Petter Nekså, SINTEF Energy Research, Norway)
- Safety of CO2 in large refrigeration systems (Samer Sawalha, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)
- Design criteria for CO2 evaporators (Roland Handschuh, Güntner AG, Germany)
- Environmentally friendly refrigeration in the retail trade – Refrigerant R22 soon to be a thing of the past -future ecological alternative can be CO2 (Reiner Tillner-Roth, Epta Group, Germany)
- Trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration (Michael Kauffeld, Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) is a government-owned corporation for international cooperation with worldwide operations. GTZ’s aim is to shape the political, economic, ecological and social development worldwide through the support of complex development and reform processes, as well as sustainable development. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is its main financing organisation. Its partner organizations include the European Commission, the United Nations and the World Bank. The organisation has more than 10,000 employees in around 130 countries.
PROKLIMA is one of five GTZ programmes helping partner countries to fulfill the requirements of international conventions. With more than 110 projects and a financial volume of over €24 million, PROKLIMA is the most important bilateral partner of the Montreal Protocol’s Multilateral Fund.